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Who is and isn’t insured by public health insurance

Public health insurance begins at birth for persons with permanent residency in the Slovak Republic, or for a dependent family member who was born to a policyholder in another EU/EEA member state.

For individuals who have permanent residency in the Slovak Republic, public health insurance comes into being even on the day following termination of circumstances which eliminate compulsory health insurance (eg. If such person is employed abroad and has insurance coverage in the country of where he is employed).

For individuals without permanent residence in the Slovak Republic, public health insurance comes into being on the same day when reasons justify the requirement of the individual to be insured, even though the individual has no permanent residence in Slovakia (eg. when an individual begins self-employment in Slovakia or when his  employer is based in Slovakia or has permanent operations in Slovakia, etc.). Public health insurance comes into being also on the date when an individual obtains permanent residency in the Slovak Republic.

Compulsory public health insurance 

Compulsory public health insurance is generally required for an individual who has permanent residency in the Slovak Republic. There are of course, some exemptions which are listed below (see "Exemptions from compulsory health insurance").

A foreign national from a country outside the EU, who obtains permanent residency, shall become publicly insured upon meeting all the conditions under the Health Insurance Act.

Compulsory public health insurance also applies to natural persons who don’t have permanent residency in the Slovak Republic (if not insured in another EU/EEA state), but is applicable in their cases when he/she:

  • works for an employer who has a registered office or a permanent establishment in the Slovak Republic or is an organizational component of a foreign entity's business on the territory of the Slovak Republic, receives an agreed monthly income from this activity at least in the amount of an employee minimum wage;
  • pursues or has the right to pursue self-employment in Slovakia;
  • is a student from another Member State or a foreign student studying at a school in the Slovak Republic as part of an international agreement;
  • is a pupil or student who is a Slovak living abroad while studying at a school in the Slovak Republic;
  • is an asylum seeker;
  • is a minor who is residing in the Slovak Republic without any legal representative or natural person who is responsible for his upbringing, and is provided for in a social services facility for which he was placed under a court order;
  • is a dependent family member, considered as such by the legislation of the Member State of their residence;
  • is a foreigner detained in the Slovak Republic;
  • is in custody or serving a prison sentence;
  • is a dependent family member who was born to the insured person in another Member State;
  • is a dependent family member according to the legislation of another Member State of his/her residence;
  • is a dependent child under 18 years of age with a residence permit in the territory of the Slovak Republic or entitled to stay in the territory of the Slovak Republic (in the case of a child born in the territory of the Slovak Republic to the parent with a valid residence from the day of submission of the application for residence for this child) and at least one legal representative or a natural person entrusted with the child’s care by a court decision has a public health insurance in the Slovak Republic.

Exemptions from public health insurance

Public health insurance is not compulsory for a permanent resident of Slovakia who is neither employed nor self-employed in the territory of the Slovak Republic and:

  • is employed abroad and has health insurance coverage in the country where he is employed;
  • is self-employed abroad and has health insurance coverage in the country where he conducts business;
  • resides on a  long-term basis abroad and has health insurance abroad and is neither employed nor self-employed in Slovakia; long-term residency abroad is considered a residency of more than six consecutive calendar months;
  • is a dependent family member of a person who is subject to the legislation of another Member State under special regulations.

Payers of health insurance

According to the Act on Health Insurance, a payer of health insurance is:

  • an employee (shares in the contributions with the employer);
  • a self-employed person (in most cases pays contributions himself, unless the law states otherwise);
  • the employer (shares in the contributions with the employee);
  • the state (see separate article).

The requirement to be publicly insured in Slovakia under the Health Insurance Act does not mean that the insured person must also be the payer.

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You are here: Home Social Issues Health Care Who is and isn’t insured by public health insurance