There are several ways of acquiring citizenship of the Slovak Republic, for example by birth or adoption in case of minors, or by naturalization in case of adult foreigners who are not Slovak citizens. The individual ways of acquiring Slovak citizenship are described below.
Determination of Citizenship by Law
An individual who was, till December 31st, 1992, a citizen of the Slovak Republic under Act No. 206/1968 Coll. on Acquisition and Loss of Citizenship of the Slovak Socialist Republic, became a citizen of the Slovak Republic also under the new Act No. 40/1993 Coll. on Citizenship of the Slovak Republic.
Acquisition of Citizenship by Choice
Choice of Slovak citizenship is only available in cases stipulated by the Act on Citizenship of the Slovak Republic. Option (choice) is a way of acquiring Slovak citizenship on the basis of a person´s decision, who thus chooses from among several citizenships that come into consideration.
Acquisition of citizenship by choice came into consideration with respect to dissolution of Czech and Slovak Federal Republic in 1993, when citizens could choose between the Slovak and Czech citizenship.
Gaining Slovak Citizenship by Naturalization
A person who is not and has not been a Slovak citizen in the past can apply for citizenship of the Slovak Republic eight years after being granted a permanent residence permit, provided that his/her residency in the territory of the Slovak Republic has been continuous for that period. However, in certain cases the naturalization certificate can also be granted to an applicant after a shorter period, for example if the applicant is a spouse of a Slovak citizen or a foreigner who has been granted asylum, etc.
Detailed information on all requirements for naturalization, exemptions and all documents required to be enclosed with the application for Slovak citizenship is available here.
Citizenship of Children
Minors may acquire Slovak citizenship by naturalization, by birth or by adoption.
A child can acquire Slovak citizenship, if:
- at least one of the child´s parent is a Slovak citizen (regardless of his/her place of birth);
- he/she is born in the territory of the Slovak Republic and his/her parents are stateless;
- he/she is born in the territory of the Slovak Republic and his/her parents are foreign nationals and the child has not acquired the citizenship of any of the parents by birth.
Provided that acquisition of citizenship of another state is not proved, a child is considered to be a citizen of the Slovak Republic, if this child was:
- born in the territory of the Slovak Republic;
- found in the territory of the Slovak Republic and the child’s parents are unknown, (until it is proved that the child acquired citizenship of another state by birth).
If the child acquires Slovak citizenship by birth due to the fact that one of his/her parents is a Slovak citizen and the other parent is a foreigner, he/she retains the Slovak citizenship even after it is proved that the parent - Slovak citizen is not a biological parent of this child.
A child becomes a citizen of the Slovak republic by adoption (according to the Act No. 36/2005 Coll. on Family as amended) provided that at least one of the adoptive parents is a citizen of the Slovak republic (Act No. 36/2005 Coll. on Family as amended – see the Collection of Laws).